Unit 4 ELO
There are various types of diuretics. They include the potassium-sparing diuretics, thiazide diuretics and the loop diuretics. The potassium-sparing diuretics include the amiloride and triamterene that work by making the kidneys release more fluids in form of urine. It interferes with the transport of salt and water as they cross various cells in the kidneys. Potassium-sparing diuretics help in the treatment of heart failure where fluids accumulate in the body since the heart stopped pumping blood. The thiazide diuretics include the chlorthalidone and indapamide that work by changing how sodium is reabsorbed in the kidneys therefore releasing more fluid through urine. In medicine, they help in relaxing blood vessels in the body preventing hypertension. Loop diuretics include the furosemide and bumetanide. The kidney passes more fluids through the loop of henle as urine causing any excess fluids within the tissue walls to move to the bloodstream. Medically, it prevents hypertension by absorbing more fluids and releasing body tissue.
Diabetes insipidus occurs when the kidneys pass out large amounts of water in form of dilute urine. It causes an imbalance of water in the body. Antiduretic hormone (ADH) helps in regulating water balance in a person’s body. A decrease or increase in ADH results to diabetes insipidus. Aquaporin reabsorbs water from the urine while being removed from blood by the kidney. It prevents the passage of ions and other solutes. The symptoms of diabetes insipidus include, excess urination followed by thirst, blurred vision and dehydration. Treatment of diabetes insipidus involves a synthetic hormone known as desmopressin that eliminates increased urination. A low-salt diet reduces the amount of urine made by the kidneys.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a disorder that affects the ring of muscle found between the esophagus and the stomach. When stomach contents return to the esophagus, it causes a certain irritation in the walls of the esophagus. It is also known as heartburn. Once a person swallows edible materials, the ring of muscle at the bottom part of the esophagus relaxes letting food and liquids to pass through and closes back again. If this muscle weakens, stomach acid and bile flows into the esophagus resulting to heartburn. Over time, this penetration of acid affects the walls of the esophagus causing its inflammation. It wears the lining of the esophagus causing constant bleeding and narrowing of the esophagus. Moreover, this condition may result to esophageal cancer although the risk is low. Treatment of GERD involves recommended medications related to acid control within the body. This includes the use of antacids that regulate the amount of acids in the stomach.
Ulcers are sores found within the stomach lining or the small intestine that cause pain. Ulcers occur when the thick layer of mucus protecting the stomach or small intestines from corrosion by acids or digestive juices is reduced. One of the causes of ulcers is the helicobacter pylori bacteria. Once the helicobacter pylori germs enter the stomach, they attack the lining and destroy the mucus protecting it. Acid therefore can penetrate through resulting to stomach sores. As a remedy, histamine receptor antagonists help to treat ulcers by reducing the amount of acids that the stomach produces. This reduces its effect on the stomach walls in case of bacteria attacks. The proton pump inhibitors are drugs that reduce the amount of gastric juice produced during digestion therefore less effect to the stomach walls.