The issue of discrimination has become an increasing concern in most countries as people struggle to counter the effects that have been created. Among the issues that have been observed in people include poor health that covers the physical and mental. The article Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Health: Findings from Community Studies by Williams, Neighbors, and Jackson evaluate the association between racial discrimination and poor physical and mental health status extensively through providing a number of expositions. Based on the dispositions, Williams, Neighbors, and Jackson identify that stress that is induced by situations of racial biasness act as propellers to health complications. Among the areas that were of great concentrat3ion was the mental status of people exposed to constant racial based discrimination. The study identified that perceived discrimination in the minds of the people elevates the ability to experience depression, psychosis and constant experiences of anger.

            The articles examination of the physical health as an element affected by discrimination showed that such people are likely top result to undesired behavior such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and other harmful drugs. Arguably, the state of racial discrimination can be viewed across different scopes that include the sexual orientation, social class and ethnicity. Drawing conclusions from the previous studies, the authors acknowledge the disparities that were existent such as the sample size, poor assessment of the health status of the people and the statistical information gathered in the preceding years. Evidently, information on the extent of discrimination effect is evaluated through the visible experiences. In this case, Williams, Neighbors, and Jackson evaluated the scope through identifying with the characteristics of Stressors, appraisals, and the various situations. The evidence provided in the research identified that health in the United States has largely been affected by racial discrimination, a condition that has existed across generations.


The article provides extensive insight on the prevalent effects that racial discrimination in the United States has caused especially to the mental and physical health of the people. An important aspect that the article considers is the availability of empirical evidence that has been provided over the years acting as a source of reference. It highlights the efforts that are being incorporated by the scientific scene to ensure that information on the effect of racial discrimination to the health of the people is understood and backed up. Any piece of research needs to draw conclusions on evidence-based aspects that may be through data collection or evaluation of the past research done. The issue of racial discrimination has been under scrutiny by scientists and philosophers therefore acting as credible sources of information to make concise and proven judgments.

            The authors tabulated the study of the association between discrimination and health through database study classifying them into various factors. This ensured that the tabulated results could be interpreted easily for evaluation buy different practitioners. Similarly, acknowledging the presence of deficiency in the previous studies illustrate the nature of research that was undertaken by the authors. It implies that the article is conscious of any issues that may be present during the collection, analysis and results parts of the study. A comprehensive understanding on stress related events owing to the possibility of discrimination was an important aspect of the study considering depression might be because of other factors such as health complications. Prejudiced familiarity to racial bias may be a neglected determinant of health and a contributor to racial disparities in health.

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