The letters sent to the editor of the city’s newspaper do not represent a random sample. Each time the selection from the population was to be made, the letter writers had an edge over the rest since the already were affiliated to the newspaper. In this instance, the probability developed from the chosen sample is guaranteed since the newspaper targets a select population who are interested in it. Therefore, the sample becomes predetermined from the onset. According to statistics, random sampling is enabled through the operating factor of chance. In this regard, chance shows equal opportunity for all in the test carried out. Therefore, by selecting the letters already written to the editor, the sample obtained did not factor opportunity to all participants. Instead, a predisposed selection was already there beforehand, after the criterion was communicated as opposed to the entire population.
In order for the sampling to be random, the criterion should be followed by replacement to determine equity. The chosen sample can be returned to the entire population and a similar occurrence obtained without difficulty. In this instance, if communication on the newspaper’s intentions were delivered to the entire population, a different set of results would be realized. In addition, the elements of independence and identical distribution have to be present in order for the sample to be random. Through assembly of the sample, the random sample should not occur after the representative population has been made possible. The representative population was effected by the editor’s choice. Further, the random variation between the selected category and one obtained from the entire population will give rise to an error. The latter provides for bias in the random sample.