Research Paper – New Rehabilitation Approaches
Research Paper – New Rehabilitation Approaches
The international law is clear that, a jail term should not entirely be confined to the deprival of freedom. Rather, it should offer opportunity for prisoners to acquire skills and information sets that will enable them reintegrate adequately upon release and avoid recidivism. Consequently, proper rehabilitation is needed in making sure that offenders reintegrate into society as individuals who follow the law. It is apparent that the methods used to help reintegrate inmates back into society differ in terms of approaches and initiatives from one group to the other. Hence, most thinkers contend that rehabilitation should be nurtured to fit each criminal’s specific requirements. As a result, a variety of various elements, encompassing mental health, biblical perception, and gender impact the type of rehabilitation programs that might be helpful to an incarcerated person. Hence, this essay will explore some of the new rehabilitation programs that work effectively in preparing inmates to reintegrate into the society. The identified programs focus on helping inmates with mental health problems, and also take a biblical perspective. Moreover, the identified new rehabilitations seek to provide gender-specific services considering that male and female’s perception towards rehabilitation differ considerably. Thus, it is essential to examine the new rehabilitation techniques in light of these factors that are significantly important. The primary merit of implementing the new approaches is the preparation of inmates into persons who can fit well into society will improve significantly and cases of recidivism will decrease considerably.
Mental problem has become a major concern in the criminal justice system that incarceration stations have gained the name “new asylums”. Based on the argument by Torrey et al. (2014), jails seemingly host more people with mental problems than the biggest existing state psychiatric facilities in 44 states put together. Torrey et al. (2014) further assert that in each of the county in America that has both a state psychiatric and penitentiary facility, more evidently a significant portion of mentally disturbed persons are jailed rather than institutionalized. Moreover, based on the argument by Gonzalez and Connell (2014), incidences of mental problems among prisoners has steadily surpassed those in the larger population. Incarceration facilities in USA are often perceived as the most competent providers of mental health plans. Consequently, developing rehabilitation programs that address the mental issues that inmates battle behind bars is increasingly becoming trendy because of the possible effects of these initiatives on prisoners.
Consequently, rehabilitators have seen the value of focusing on mental health as manifested through the adoption of various rehabilitation programs. Traditionally, most jails in the U.S. have referred mentally challenged prisoners to be attended to at a state psychiatric facility, but since such places are often full, treatment does not happen as effectively as possible in most instances (Torrey et al., 2014). The utilization of other approaches, such as solitary confinement or restricting apparatus, are sometimes important and may add to the deterioration of symptoms. As the ultimate remedy to this ineffective of mentally sick inmates, various correctional facilities have turned their attention to facilities that are built and managed specifically with the objective of treating mentally ill individuals who come into contact with the criminal justice system (Torrey et al., 2014). As a result, prisons are refining their jail and prison treatment laws and have invested significantly on implementing and promoting jail diversion initiatives. In addition, correctional facilities have turned more attention to using court-directed outpatient health intervention with the belief that they have the capacity offer suitable treatment for mental health. Moreover, prisons now pay more attention to proper intake screenings to be able to understand some of the mental health issues that mat require considerable attention during the time of incarceration (Torrey et al., 2014). Another new development is the proposal of a model law that permits county and city jails to give involuntary treatment for mentally disturbed individuals who require treatment (Torrey et al., 2014). However, these approaches differ considerably across various states depending on various factors, encompassing population of inmates, interests and priorities, availability of resources, and societal changes. Nonetheless, interveners still focus on developing new interventions that would facilitate rehabilitation for individuals with mental health complications.
Enacting new remedies to facilitate the treatment of people suffering from mental problem while behind bars is necessary and effective, which make it necessary to pay considerable attention to the newly formed rehabilitation programs. It is less likely that an ex-offender will re-indulge in criminal actions as a result of mental-related issues when they receive adequate and effective mental attention while incarcerated (Gonzalez & Connell, 2014). Moreover, embracing the new rehabilitation techniques will offer the chance to deal with some of the emerging mental problems that prove stubborn and require equally new interventions to address the issue (Gonzalez & Connell, 2014). More research is needed in this area to continually improve the mental care inmates receive as part of their rehabilitation.
Nonetheless, it is still important to consider some of the traditional rehabilitation techniques and find ways of implementing them alongside the new practices. For example, conventional techniques such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), is a kind of mental health treatment that has become applicable in addressing mental health issues among inmates for many decades (Lipsey et al., 2007). The approach is effective because it enables the affected person to identify negative or harmful thoughts and behavioral initiatives. Consequently, deploying the technique as effective as possible provides the chance to foster new ways of behaving and changing individual pattern of thoughts. Consequently, individuals find it easier to deal with their problems as effectively as possible (Lipsey et al., 2007). Therefore, even as rehabilitators turn their attention to newer techniques, they should consider some of the traditional forms that have proved effective in dealing with mental health complications among inmates and see ways of incorporating both approaches to increase the chances of witnessing impressive performance as inmates continue or plan to finish their term (Lipsey et al., 2007). Nonetheless, casting some of the approaches that have proved effective over the years and solely focusing on new techniques could cripple the attempts to give elevated care to inmates.
Correctional facilities increasingly see the value of incorporating biblical teachings in their rehabilitation plans, an approach that seems to impact significantly on the changing the perception of inmates as they prepare to rejoin society. Those in charge of rehabilitation programs realize that the Bible has various scriptures that offer information on how to conduct prosperous rehabilitation initiatives. Whereas the Bible calls for stiffer penalties in some areas, it also advocates for fair treatment and effective rehabilitation forms. An example of an incident where the Bible appears to be considerably harsh is in Leviticus Chapter 24:17-21 where God instructs Moses in a way that seems to uphold the death penalty. The Lord tells Moses that “if any person injures another person, whatever he does must be returned on equal measure” (ESV Study Bible, 2011). However, whereas the Bible acknowledges that punishments are meant to ensure that justice is served, Christians believe that taking revenge when one is wronged is incorrect. They accept that they should forgive the sins of others in the same manner they believe God frees them from their sins. One particular verse supporting the need for rehabilitation approaches that is in accordance with godly teachings is Matthew 7:1, which warns against judging others; otherwise, they face condemnation (ESV Study Bible, 2011). The verse that serves as the beginning of discussions on judgmentalism, simply warns against judging others to avoid being a victim of similar judgement. The ultimate judge in this instance is God who assumes the mightiest authority. It creates a framework on how people should relate to each other. Based on the teaching in this verse, it is apparent that embracing appropriate rehabilitation techniques equal avoiding judging others harshly.
The Bible has other verses that give valuable insight into the various ways of conducting rehabilitative processes, including John 8:7 and James 5:16. John 8:7 narrates the story Jesus’s prevention of those who stone a woman accused of prostitution. The verse states “So when they persisted in asking him, he arose, and responded unto them” (ESV Study Bible, 2011). He said that he who does not have a sin amongst you, let him cast the first stone. Having presented an adulterous woman before Jesus, the Pharisees and the masters of law were seeking to trick Jesus. They knew that due to his merciful nature, he would not be willing to uphold the law by permitting her death. Learning from the verse, those responsible for developing rehabilitation programs for inmates understand the need create plans that advocate for forgiveness considering that everyone has sinned in one way or the other, and that denouncing others because of their wrongful doings without giving them another chance to correct their mistake is incorrect and inappropriate. On the other hand, James 5:16 advocates for forgiveness. It states that “Thus repent your wrongdoings to each other and pray for each other so that you may receive healing. The prayers of a righteous man are effective and powerful” (ESV Study Bible, 2011). Therefore, rehabilitators have seen the significance of incorporating biblical teachings in their intervention programs as they prepare for reentry, an approach that has proved to be effective.
Therefore, correctional facilities should promote the new rehabilitation technique that is increasingly taking a new form. Specific teams should take charge of overseeing the effective implementation of developing rehabilitation plans structured on biblical teachings and oversee their implementation. The rehabilitation plans should see the convict as a person is culpable of sinning like any other human being. In recent past, more facilities have invited evangelists to share the word of God with inmates as part of uplifting their spirit and restoring hope in them. The approach is effective because it provides inmates with the chance to interact with the word of God that is pegged on hope, optimism, and well-being (O’Connor, 2014). The approach seems to work well with inmates who ascribe to the Christian teachings, an indication that rehabilitators need to pay more attention to the intervention technique. Moreover, rehabilitators stress on the freedom of religion and worship that is enshrined in the constitution (O’Connor, 2014). As a result, more inmates have had the chance to speak to God through prayers seeking for strength and direction to overcome the sentence and reintegrate into society as people who have a changed mind towards crime.
Those in charge of rehabilitation programs now acknowledge the significance of considering the inmate’s gender when developing correctional plans. It is now apparent that gender-specific rehabilitation plans are necessary for offenders to reintegrate into society after completing their jail term. Based on the report by Miller (2021), men and women tend to perceive things relatively differently. Consequently, more research in the recent past has paid attention on how to form a concrete conceptual plan for gender-specific intervention. On their part, Grella and Rodriguez (2011) assert that past studies have confirmed that women require more attention and the issues that they face are considerably intricate compared to men. Hence, it is imperative to take these factors into account when creating rehabilitative plans.
In light of the above description, various new rehabilitation programs have been enacted with the hope that they would revolutionize the perception of inmates as they undergo re-entry initiatives. The need to focus on aftercare has proved to be an effective rehabilitation plan. Based on the writing by Miller (2021), a number of correctional facilities have embarked on providing treatment that starts at least 90 days before the offender’s release and goes on for a duration under the community’s watch. The newly developed rehabilitation plan works in such a way that linkages to the community health practitioners in charge of addressing physical, mental, and addiction-related problems take place before the release to avoid inconveniences (Miller, 2021). In addition, rehabilitators have increasingly focused on case management that they carefully maintain while the reformed person is under the community’s supervision after their release. Also closely related to focus on after care is medication-assisted treatment that is increasingly gaining prominence across American correctional facilities (Grella & Rodriguez, 2011). Rehabilitators now understand that for incarcerated individuals battling addiction, mental complications, or both and particularly for those bound by alcohol or opioids, medication-aided treatment offers a viable alternative for the criminal justice system to alleviate relapse and recidivism relying on a well-formulated public health plan (Miller, 2021). The newly formed medical-based rehabilitation programs are effective and perform purposeful roles in changing the views of reformed offenders as the rejoin society. They ensure that the released person is of sound mind, and not culpable of returning to crime due to health-related pressures, as it often happens with those who leave prison but do not get enough intervention to address their mental health problem.
Other new gender-related rehabilitation programs exist that are equally effective in ensuring that those who leave prison are fit to regain their liberty. An approach that is fast gaining prominence is peer recovery support that proves to be effective with female offenders. The use of peer recovery experts according to Miller (2021) may be considerably effective for female reentry due to various reasons. Prior evidence indicates that women, overall, have stronger social ties, attach more emotions to their relationships, and perceive themselves via the lens of these attachments. Peer recovery experts, therefore, have identified the need to capitalize on these features and form personal ties with female inmates and guide them on how to foster their relations as they rejoin the society. The newly enacted rehabilitation technique is effective because it provides inmates with the opportunity to improve their relationships upon leaving prison (Grella & Rodriguez, 2011). Moreover, the approach proves to be effective because it may facilitate how offenders avoid recidivism because they will know how to relate with people who appear to be offensive in their ways of relations and utterances. Rehabilitators also focus on providing tips on how to maintain family bonds upon leaving prison. The approach has gained prominence after learning that domestic issues contribute significantly towards many cases of recidivism and relapse (Miller, 2021)). However, rehabilitators now understand that women who maintain contact with their families and children have low chances of encountering depression while serving their jail term, and are likely to acknowledge and work towards promoting family reunification upon exiting the correctional facility. Miller (2021) informs that the implications of parental confinement, particularly for maternal incarceration, are well captured in numerous scholarly works but may be adequately implemented if correctional facilities are reentry initiatives escalate the amount of contact women have with their families and offspring while behind bars.
Rehabilitation programs that prepare inmates for reentry have also turned attention to offering particular program elements that permit women to engage with their children as often as possible during incarceration together with parenting classes when necessary. The attempts to elevate how inmates form effective relationships with their families while serving their term and upon leaving prison are effective because they help inmates to battle some of the disturbing thoughts caused by their incarceration or conflicts that could emerge due to lack of skills on how to manage relations (Miller, 2021). There is need to pay more attention to these newly formed rehabilitation programs to be in a better position to help inmates reintegrate as reformed persons who are ready to lead a life free of past atrocities.
Because inmates are equally human and deserve the opportunity to excel, it is imperative to settle on effective rehabilitation techniques that are quite different from traditional intervention techniques. Deploying effective and well-planned rehabilitation techniques play critical roles in facilitating the reintegration of inmates into society. Moreover, using proper rehabilitation approaches makes it easier to mitigate recidivism, which is a key concern in many societies. Hence, correctional facilities have increasingly adopted rehabilitation techniques that focus on easing the mental problems that are part of many convicts. Such rehabilitation approaches are effective because evidence suggest that prisons house more people with mental complications than any psychiatric institution in any state. In addition, correctional facilities have increasingly embraced religious-based rehabilitation techniques with the view that biblical teachings give vital tips on how to handle certain types of conflicts. Reading the Bible, one identifies various relevant verses that give valuable information on how to deal with conflicts. Incorporating religious rehabilitation approaches provides the chance to enact techniques that are considerably lenient and humane. New rehabilitation styles are also gender sensitive. Considering that the interests and desires of males and females differ considerably, rehabilitators now understand the significance incorporating approaches that consider these variation.
ESV Study Bible (2011). English standard version online. https://www.bibleonline.org/
Gonzalez, J., & Connell, N. (2014). Mental health of prisoners: Identifying barriers to mental health treatment and medication continuity. American Journal of Public Health, 104(12), 2328-2333. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302043
Grella, C., & Rodriguez, L. (2011). Motivation for treatment among women offenders in prison-based treatment and longitudinal outcomes among those who participate in community aftercare. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 43(1), 58-67. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2011.602275
Lipsey, M., Landenberger, N., & Wilson, S. (2007). Effects of cognitive-behavioral programs for criminal offenders. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 3(1), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.4073/csr.2007.6
Miller, H. (2021). Female re-entry and gender-responsive programming: Recommendations for policy and practice. https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/300931.pdf.
O’Connor, T. (2014). What works, religion as a correctional intervention: Part I. Journal of Community Corrections, 14(1), 11-27. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313063155_What_works_religion_as_a_correctional_intervention_Part_II
Torrey, E.F., Zdanowicz, M.T., Kennard, A.D., Lamb, H.R., Eslinger, D.F., Biasotti, M.I., Fuller, D.A. (2014). The treatment of persons with mental illness in prisons and jails: A state survey. Arlington, VA: Treatment Advocacy Center.