Question 1

The ontological argument justifies that God exists through rational thinking developed by Saint Anselm who has an eleventh century monk. It states the manner in which God is conceived should be as a the most perfect and infinite being as He exhibits all forms of perfections through justice, omniscience and omnipotence hence validating that His perfect existence is justified.

An empirical statement can be defined as a true statement primarily because it is supported by facts and the experience (Solomon and Higgins 148). Within the ontological statement, the part I consider as empirical is God should be conceived as perfect and infinite being. This is because he is the creator of all things and he depicts traits that are affiliated with perfection. These traits include omnipotence, omnipresent and omniscience as well as being just.  

In the ontological statement, a statement can be considered as the necessary truth. A necessary truth statement is true because it is supported by a reason. For instance, 2 + 2= 4 is a necessary truth, which is supported with the reasoning of addition (Solomon and Higgins 149). Within the argument, the necessary truth is that God exhibits all forms of perfection. This is justified by the reasoning that He is able to be omnipresent, omnipotent, just, and omniscient.

Question 2.

Rene Descartes was a French Philosopher who was not only a pluralist but also believed in the method of doubt, which entailed the discernment of true knowledge and false beliefs through proof. His rationality catalyzed the development of the concept of Foundationalism that insisted on the existence of proof prior determining whether a statement, ideology, belief of concept is true (Solomon and Higgins 125). Foundationalism has been coined the name “method of doubt” which involves suspension of beliefs until they are validated by proof such as Descartes did. The primary rationale that Descartes is that for a thing to exist, there must be proof that justifies it existence (Solomon and Higgins 158). Foundationalism as elaborated by Descartes indicated that human beings and God exists and this cannot be doubted, as God cannot allow it. Based on the explanation, it is evident to note that is structured as an architectural edifice whereby the existence of God acts as a foundationalist system that explains the subsequent existence of other things and creatures.

 Another example of the Foundationalist system is the Euclid’s mathematical geometry. Judging from it presentation, it is notable that this mathematician commences with elaborating on the foundation of the prime principles such as postulates, definitions, common notions, axioms. This is then followed by the basing of the super structure of this mathematical concept, which can include further propositions. The process of unfolding in thought and understanding that is key in the concept of Foundationalism is depicted with the mediations of Descartes (Solomon and Higgins 160). Despite the fact that they lack of straightforwardness observed with Euclid geometry, it is evident that one is able to point out ton the central constructive steps within the mediations. Judging on this explanation, the elemental fundamental propositions can be viewed as contributing to the overall belief or justifiability of other proposition that are considered valid. This means that the fundamentality of these main propositions provide the status to which another proposition is justifiable and believed.

Question 3

Philosophers over the centuries have valued skepticism as a fundamental facet is determining their positions on various philosophical truths and beliefs. However, it has been considered as a less effective instrumental in solving the  difficult philosophical queries that have arisen such as doubting the existence of the world as exemplified by Descartes (Solomon and Higgins 156). Based on the manner in which philosophers handle varied notions and concepts, it is valid that they portray the easiness with which individuals are assumptive of truths that are considered objective. Hume, one of the greatest philosophers of his time particularly supported skepticism. He advised that for any belief one should inquire, “Is this a matter of fact, to be defended by appeal to experience or experiment? Or is this the truth of reason, the truth which can be demonstrated by an abstract calculation of the kind we ding in mathematics or logic?” (Solomon and Higgins 164) According to Hume, if the answer to this question is neither yes nor no, the belief should be considered as having null affirmation as it lacks rational justification. This claim is known as the negative claim because Hume elaborated that there is no individual capable of having the answers to queries they once believed where rather obvious. From the statement forwarded by Hume, experience is pointed out as key aspect that facilitates the development of knowledge. He terms this as impressions and using Descartes’ doubt on the world existence, he illustrates that this doubt excluded the fact that knowledge is a consequent product of experience.

Understanding the fact that experience is the key element that validates human knowledge is imperative in creating awareness and enhancing the level of skepticism an individual regarding beliefs and other people’s logic and reasoning. This can be explained by discussing the logic of the statement “everything that happens has a cause (Solomon and Higgins 163).” Hume elaborates that in the scientific world; scientists have observed random subatomic emission, which they considered as being non-causal. This scientific experience clearly dismisses the cause and effect relationship that is universally believed. Considering that such emission cannot be justified by reason, as they are experienced, the entirety of the importance of human experience is gaining knowledge is clearly illuminated thus rejecting the cause effect belief within the statement.

Works Cited

Solomon, Robert C, and Kathleen M. Higgins. The Big Questions: A Short Introduction to Philosophy. Melbourne: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.

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