JOURNAL ARTICLE HR
Journal Article HR
International organizations are elevated forms of entities because of their rather intricate forms of ownership and operations. The United Nations (UN) that has its headquarters in the UN is an example of such an establishment that performs its operations as required of an international organization. The agency adopts an organizational structure that favors its operations, as well as deploys other management techniques that ensure the group achieves the best out of its activities. The UN has made significant strides in people practice, which primarily seeks to manage employees throughout the time they stay with the intergovernmental organization. The firm invests in people practice as a way of supporting its international working operations. The UN considers cultural factors in everything it does and tends to refer to frameworks that guide it on how to venture into different regions. The holistic approach the UN employs in running the firm give it the status of an international organization and play critical functions in promoting good performance.
AC 1.1 – Contextual Factors of an International Organization
It is possible to describe an international organization using different words but implying to the same thing. Overall, an international organization is an entity formed by formal political pacts between its affiliates that have the status of international agreement. The existence of such an organization is acknowledged by law in their member nations, and is not regarded as a resident institutional function of the nations in which they are situated (Golia & Peters 2020, p. 1). An international organization form a crucial part of people’s lives from multiple perspectives. Often an international organization adopts a structure that makes sure the attention of the top leaders towards forming a holistic and unified view to international activities. Embracing an effective organizational structure boosts coordination through various geographies and cross product (Golia & Peters 2020, p. 2). Besides, embracing an effective structure helps to avoid resource duplication. Often, an international organization would embrace a structure that suits its activities, which could in the form of networking, matrix, divisional, or functional.
The United Nations is an example of an international organization that embraces an organizational structure that would facilitate its operations that seek to uphold international security and peace, create friendly ties among countries, and attain international partnership. The structure falls into six chief organs. They include the Trusteeship Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Security Council, and the General Assembly in ascending order (United Nations 2022). All these are located at the UN headquarters in New York. The UN Charter describes the entity as being a centralized organization both at the Secretariat and intergovernmental levels. However, the group has decentralized some of its operations to territorial facilities.
The UN while performing its operations, take into account the provisions of the Hofstede’s cultural framework that makes it easy for it to fit in all the places where it operates. Adhering to the five cultural dimensions by Hofstede, including long-term orientation, femininity/masculinity, individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and power distance, provides an opportunity to know the influences of a society’s cultural practices and values of its members on a particular entity, and to understand how the values connect to behaviors (Hofstede Insight 2022). The framework is a fundamental guide for the UN because it provides a framework for illustrating the highly embedded desires of different cultures. The cultural dimension is an appropriate tool for the UN because it presents an opportunity to determine the manner that business is performed across various cultures. In other words, the model allows the UN to differentiate between dissimilar national cultures, the aspects of culture, and evaluate their effects on an organizational context.
The UN has immense technical capability that enables it to perform its extensive functions as appropriately as possible. The various programmes and funds owned by the UN can be termed as some of its key infrastructures that aid operations. Some of the programmes that play critical roles, include the UNDP, UNICEF, UNHCR, WFP, and ENEP among others. In addition to these, the UN is proud of its core competencies, which include behaviors, attributes, and skills, which are deemed essential for all staff members of the international organization (United Nations, 2022). At the same time, the UN relies on its vital resources such as the Security Council, the Regional Commissions, Economic and Social Council, and the General Assembly Reports and Resolutions.
The organization considers the economic situation of all nations where it operates because the information helps it to plan its activities as effectively as possible. Inflation is an economic factor that really matters to the UN. Since one of the chief objectives of the UN is to alleviate poverty, it considers matters relating to inflation as being an essential determining factor for its operations (United Nations, 2022). Its wish is that the price of commodities and goods remain stable to avoid scenarios where vulnerable individuals are not able to afford certain requirements. The other economic consideration that matters to the UN is taxation policies. The agency prefers a scenario where the taxation regulations are fair and not showing any sense of imbalance or dishonesty. Hence, economic factors are crucial considerations for the UN.
AC 1.2 – Drivers and Benefits of Employment in an International Context
Serving or being employed in an international context such as serving for the UN has various benefits, which also serve as the drivers for working in these institutions. One of the benefits and driver for serving in an international organization such as the UN is that an employee gets the chance to enjoy the diversity associated with the coming together of workers from diverse backgrounds. A major benefit that comes with working in a diverse workplace is getting the chance to interact with diverse perspectives. Bringing into one unit people from diverse backgrounds and experiences as well as backgrounds and cultures enhance organizational capacity to form ideas, solve problems, and empathize with others. Besides, a diverse workstation fosters understanding and respect for other cultures, and offers an opportunity to improve one’s innovation and creativity by learning from others (United Nations, 2022). The other factor that appeals people to work for an international origination such as the UN is that it is possible to gain competitive advantage because such firms are deemed as recruiting highly qualified personnel. Thus, an employee from the UN may easily secure employment in another firm.
Gaining technology knowledge and the opportunity for business growth are some of the factors that encourage people to secure employment at the UN that serves in a global context. The UN has made significant strides in incorporating modern technologies such as artificial intelligence, robotics, blockchain, and biotechnology to improve attainment of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (United Nations, 2022). Moreover, the UN expands its use of technology to foster its alignment with the values embedded in the UN Charter, the standards and norms of international law, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, 2022). Thus, employees who get the chance to serve for the UN have a better chance to acquire knowledge needed to use superior technology. Similarly, international organizations such as the UN grow rapidly, a factor that appeals to many people who would want to work at the company. Out of the 195 nations in the world, the UN has a membership of 193 nation, thereby illustrating the rate at which the organization grows. Any worker would want to serve in such an institution because of the many opportunities that they are likely to get.
AC 1.3 – Convergent and Divergent Approaches to Inform People about Management Policy and Practice Choices
Organizations can either choose convergent or divergent management strategies depending on their interests and desires. Convergence approach implies that management approaches become more similar internationally. Globalization, with its main technological and economic facilitators, fosters convergence among structures of management practices and organization as nations show similar structures of political stability and economic growth. On the other hand, divergence management is the practice of groups or an organization to become less alike over time. Since organizational behavior usually changes to properly differentiate members of one team from another (Akpa et al. 2021, p. 362), the norms of most groups usually transform to refuse being confused with imitators or other groups. Some of the convergence approaches that the UN uses as part of its leadership is that it merges formerly separate functions, areas of applications, and markets. The primary benefit with this technique is that makes an organization to be dynamic in the way it acts, thus being able to bring in past insights and ideas and be able to fit in new contexts. However, various impact on the convergence model that the UN uses to manage its operations in all its stations (United Nations, 2022). A critical factor that impacts on the management strategy is awareness on how the approach functions. It is possible to achieve impressive performance when deploying the management technique when leaders have adequate knowledge and skills on how the approach works.
The UN deploys the one country approach that plays crucial functions in influencing its operations. Under the one country approach, all officers, workers, and representatives of the organization posted in foreign nations must function, act, and relate as a unit with a common mission, under the stewardship of the head of a particular agency, who is either the regional director or overseer. The approach has many benefits, which is the reason why the UN chooses to deploy it (United Nations, 2022). Some of the reasons that make the one country approach a suitable one for the agency is that it provides an opportunity for better problem solving because everyone serves with the same mission. Moreover, serving as a unified team while working in foreign lands increases coordination and escalates the likelihood of achieving the targeted aspiration. The merits associated with the one country approach is the reason why the UN focuses on the technique. Nonetheless, the primary challenge with the technique is that is denies the team working in foreign nations to explore new talents by engaging people from other places. Besides, failure to engage people from other regions denies the team the opportunity to acquire new perspectives that they would gain by engaging others.
AC 3.1 – Function of People Practice in an International Organizational Context
The UN pays considerable attention to people practices, which are the approaches and processes that it utilizes across the worker lifecycle. Some of the approaches the group uses to excel in this area entail nurturing talent, conducting needs analysis, creating policies and laws to regulate interactions, analyzing people’s data, dealing with grievances and proposals, hiring people, proving motivation, and providing opportunity for growth. These are the core supporting strategies that the UN, like any other international organization, uses to foster people practice at the facility. For instance, the UN welcomes potential candidates to apply for available positions via the Careers Portal, or one may have to undergo an examination process (United Nations, 2022). However, applicants for positions in the General Service and similar divisions, encompassing those in crafts and trades, safety and security, secretarial and other position, are hired locally. Regardless of the hiring process, the UN ensures that it recruits qualified candidates who are likely to help the organization to achieve its aspirations. Concerning motivating its workers, the UN deploys various techniques such as offering praises and recognising good performers, offering promotions, paying workers well, and giving them the opportunity to expand their knowledge through interaction with more qualified personnel and advanced technology. In terms of developing career, the UN offers its workers the opportunity to pursue further training in reputable training facilities, which offers the chance to become more enlightened and competent to serve at various positions. Based on this description, it is apparent that the UN has made significant strides in promoting people practice.
The UN pays much attention to assessing employee needs at the time they serve at the organization. The process provides an opportunity to understand their requirements as a group and as individuals. Therefore, it becomes easier to avoid disgruntlement and dissatisfaction among the staff members who should feel welcomed and satisfied to provide their services as effectively as possible. The group in performing the process considers various key factors to achieve the best outcome. The first thing the UN does is to perform an organizational assessment where it outlines the firm’s goals and objectives (United Nations, 2022). The next step is to assess the specific tasks and jobs that need to be performed by the staff. The third process is to perform an individual assessment that would offer the chance to know what needs to improve and what works well as anticipated.
The key objective for paying much attention to people practice and creating relevant systems is to encourage international working practices. The chief objective for the UN is to gain public trust as a reputable firm that people can believe in and trust (United Nations, 2022). Earning the trust reaffirms that the firm cares enough about its stakeholders to honestly and confidently walk them through the issues that may be encountering with the organizational services. Besides, when stakeholders trust the firm, they find it credible and what to do more transactions with it. This means increased engagement, loyalty, and advocacy from different parties.
AC 3.2 – Practices and Policies that are influenced by the International Context
The UN pays considerable attention to cultural and institutional considerations when deploying its practices and policies. Some of the cultural factors that the UN considers in the course of its practice in the various nations, include but not limited to cultural preferences, language, education, religion, norms, values, ethics, and social organization (Akpa et al. 2021, p. 364). By being culturally aware, the firm can acknowledge and appreciate the cultures of others, their beliefs, customs, and values without secluding or discriminating against them. Besides, when the firm is culturally aware it can know what is deemed offensive or inappropriate to others. In addition, the UN takes into consideration various institutional factors that are established to guide organizational practices. The group fosters harmony at the workstation to enable people to work peacefully and effectively. The considerations are essential and contributes significantly towards good performance.
Various factors impact the application of the policies and practices formed by the oragnisation’s headquarters that deserve considerable attention. Cultural differences is a critical factor that determines the applicability of HRM policies. It becomes problematic to apply policies in foreign lands if they do not reflect the desires and interests of local people (Akpa et al. 2021, p. 365). However, forcing people with foreign policies even when their culture do not support the provision could cause significant criticism and even revolt when those obliged by the regulations feel that they are inconsistent and contrary to their desires. The other factor that could affect the use of the policies and practiced developed in New York and applied elsewhere is lack of awareness on how the regulations work.
AC 2.1 – Factors to Consider when Selecting and Resourcing for International Assignments
The UN is keen when selecting and resourcing for international assignments. One of the approaches the group considers is the ethnocentric strategy that employs similar HR techniques of the main organization in the host nation. The approach provides a suitable chance to achieve uniformity during the selection and resourcing process. However, the UN also considers the polycentric strategy that it deems as being crucial for engaging local people. The approach advocates for incorporating local people as the workforce and adapting the HR practices of the host country. The approach improves the selection and resourcing process because local vendors and workers feel appreciated by the opportunity that they get. Moreover, the UN consider the desired qualities and behaviors during the selection and resourcing process to work with those who depict desired features (United Nations, 2022). Also important is that the UN strives to be diverse and emotionally resilient during the selection and resourcing process while focusing on achieving and upholding individual and societal well-being.
AC 2.2 – Why People Practices can differ across International Borders
The UN acknowledges that various factors impact on people practice across global borders. The local employment regulations and legislation play fundamental roles in impacting the services of people. For instance, regulations on working hours and minimum wage largely determine the perception of local workers and how they serve. Besides, different nations have dissimilar regulations and structures that determine employee rewards, performance, and relations, which also impact on the variations in people practice. In addition, customs and culture are equally influential in shaping people practices (Akpa et al. 2021, p. 365). Often, workers would act and relate to each other and to the firm in accordance with their cultural regulations and directives, which have so much impact on people.
AC 2.3 – Cultural and Institutional Differences to consider when managing International People Practice
The UN considers various factors when managing people practice. An essential consideration is how cultures differ, as well as how processes, policies, and strategies vary (Akpa et al. 2021, p. 368). Because cultures differ as well as perceptions on processes and policies, the UN keenly evaluates what it needs to embrace or adjust to fit into the new setting. The UN understands that the culture impacts significantly on communication processes and decision-making, which compel it to examine how the variation takes effect before making any progress (United Nations, 2022). The group after analyzing how culture determine communication and decision-making creates guidelines to ensure that it acts in accordance with domestic provisions. Such considerations helps to ensure that employees are not defiant or anxious that the firm does not care for their cultural provisions and domestic requirements and guidelines. More fundamentally, the UN pays considerable attention to how state functions and law could influence its managing of international people practice. Often, it adheres to local labor laws as well as follows other regulations that influence employer-employee relationship. Thus, the UN considers cultural and institutional differences as being crucial when managing international people practice.
The UN is an international organization that focuses on achieving the best out of its operations. The agency focuses on various key issues to ensure that its operations take place without any obstruction taking into account that the agency conducts its operations across the globe. The group relies on a governance structure that ensures activities in all member states take place as affectively as possible. People practice is a critical aspect of the UN because operations in this area presents an opportunity to nurture and develop workers. Also important is that the UN considers cultural factors while performing its activities because culture play fundamental roles in determining how the group works in different member states.
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