INVESTIGATING KUWAITI TEACHERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE USE OF THE INDUCTIVE METHOD IN GRAMMAR TEACHING
City and State
Investigating Kuwaiti Teachers’ Attitudes towards the use of the Inductive Method in Grammar Teaching
The teaching method tutor uses determines how they handle their subjects and perform. Moreover, the selected teaching technique could influence how learners master and apply the taught concepts. Consequently, educators should be careful to settle on the most impressive approach. Teachers’ attitude is also important when determining the outcome of particular teaching method. When teachers have a positive attitude towards a particular teaching approach they increase their chances of witnessing positive outcome as opposed to when they have an undesirable attitude. Hence, in this writing, the essay investigates Kuwaiti teachers’ attitude on the utilization of the inductive teaching technique in grammar teaching. Although in Kuwait English is neither an official nor national language, it is evidently the most essential language in the Middle Eastern nation. It is taught alongside Arabic in Kuwaiti learning institutions and is regarded to have an elevated place in the education curriculum of Kuwaiti citizens. Presently, teachers use the techniques that suit them or which the school’s management advocate for, which often revolve around deductive, inductive, inductive deductive method, and incidental methods. However, seemingly, Kuwaiti teachers seem to pay considerable attention to the deductive method as opposed to the inductive approach because of their perceptions associated with the technique. The fact that in inductive teaching learners have the chance to interact and participate, depend on their critical thinking, and gain a deeper awareness of an issue makes the approach more effective compared to the deductive technique. It is essential to understand teachers’ attitude regarding the use of the inductive method because this provides the chance to determine whether educators have the capacity to use the technique as effectively as possible, or whether more needs to happen to mitigate any shortcomings.
The issue is that English is a foreign language in Kuwait, which require instructors to deploy effective teaching approaches to relay instructions as appropriately as possible. In Kuwait, Arabic is the official language, despite the fact that English is rampantly used. English is used in the business context and is a mandatory second language in learning institutions. Hence, when teachers do not apply the most appropriate teaching methods to teach grammar it becomes considerably difficult to make significant strides as one would desire (Kamil 2011). Teachers may lack the capacity to deliver the message as appropriately as they would desire, and in the long run students will perform poorly. However, the issue is that whereas the inductive approach proves to be appropriate as compared to the deductive technique in teaching and learning grammar, many English teachers in Kuwait still use the deductive technique despite the possible limitations associated with the practice (Kamil 2011). Nonetheless, educators need to pay considerable attention to the inductive because other than being a natural approach to acquiring a language, it has various other merits. The introduction already hints that the inductive method boosts students’ engagement, improves learners’ critical thinking skills, and provides the chance to acquire a deeper meaning of the language. However, those are not the only benefits of using the inductive technique. Other gains include the fact that the style promotes natural curiosity in learners, helps in forming a scientific mindset, and encourages learning by a doing technique, make inductive teaching an effective method (Taha 2014, p. 140). A key issue that may be contributing to the inadequate use of the inductive method despite the many benefits associated with the approach makes it necessary to determine whether teachers’ attitudes towards the method hamper its use. Paying considerable attention to this are offers the chance to make necessary improvements, complements, and develop capacity in the teaching context.
- What attitudes do teachers in Kuwait have towards the utilization of the inductive approach in teaching grammar?
- What are the consequences of the attitudes of Kuwaiti teachers towards the utilization of the inductive technique in teaching grammar?
The analysis indicates that English teachers in Kuwait use different teaching styles, but seem to pay considerable attention to the deductive technique. Teachers work towards settling on the most suitable teaching approach considering that the Ministry of Education has obligated schools and institutions of higher learning to teach the English as a foreign language (EFL) (Rahmany et al. 2014, p. 350). The intention of this objective is to improve the competencies and proficiency of English at all levels of education. In addition, whereas English is not an official or national language in Kuwait, it is certainly the most essential languages in the educational context in the country. English is taught together with Arabic in schools and is deemed to have a significant place in the curriculum of Kuwaitis. Schools in Kuwait have increasingly adopted English as a medium of interaction because of the role the language plays as a lingua franca, because it is the commonest mode of communication or language that permits people to understand each other despite of their ethnical and cultural backgrounds (Rahmany et al. 2014, p. 350). Thus, teaching English provides Kuwaiti learners with the chance to improve their communication and understand one another as effectively as possible. Teaching English in Kuwaiti schools enable learners in this region to interact confidently with people from other nations, thus making it possible for nationals to fit into the rapidly changing globalized context (Rahmany et al. 2014, p. 351). Nonetheless, it is essential to acknowledge that the nature of school system and teacher variety impact on teaching English Grammar in Kuwaiti school. Typically, schools that attach value to teaching and using English will pay more attention to the teaching of grammar as opposed to schools that do not take this area seriously. Besides, teacher variety really matters when it comes to teaching grammar in Kuwait. Often, a diverse workforce improves the likelihood for having competent teachers, as opposed to when recruiting local educators who may not have much insight into how the language works. Hence, teaching grammar in Kuwaiti schools is not a new concept, but one that has gained prominence over the years.
Inductive versus Deductive Grammar Teaching
Knowing how the inductive and deductive grammar teachings vary and understanding their merits and demerits presents a suitable chance to identify the one that could suit grammar teachers and students in Kuwait. The inductive style of teaching implies that the educator presents the rules via sentences and situations and give relevant guidance, whereas learners on their part engage in free practice (Obeidat & Alomari 2020, p. 282). After that, the instructor elicits or deduces the rules from the students themselves by themselves. The inductive technique to teaching language commences with examples and ask students to find the underlying rules (Obeidat & Alomari 2020, p. 282). A good example is where students listen to an instruction that encompasses examples of the utilization of personal pronouns or third conditional. The educator verifies that the learners comprehend the meaning of its use by checking students’ understanding of the listening texts, and only after this pays attention to the form, while referring to examples from the text to generate rules about the forms, its utilization and pronunciation. In other words, in the inductive method, the rule is issued only after the student has induced or inferred the underlying concepts for the rule.
The inductive approach to teaching has its strengths as well as weaknesses that teachers should understand because these could impact their use of the approach. The analysis already gives some information regarding the merits of using the inductive method. It is easier to master the content when learners take active roles in the process as opposed to when they play quasi roles (Abdukarimova & Zubaydova 2021, p. 373). Thus, teachers who value learner participation in their teaching practice will deploy the technique. The other merit of the inductive teaching technique is that it fosters natural curiosity in learners, thus generating the interest in them to learn. The curiosity increases the time learners take to interact with the content, thus improving their likelihood of performing well. The idea that the inductive approach encourages learning by a practical approach presents a suitable chance to counter some of the challenges that learners could encounter in the course of the learning process (Abdukarimova & Zubaydova 2021, p. 373). However, that does not mean that the inductive method does not have its limitations. An apparent limitation is that much energy and time are used working out regulations with learners. The time consumed to work out a particular rule may be at the expense at the duration used in placing the rules to some kind of productive undertakings. Thus, teachers must spend considerable time preparing for the lesson. Using much energy and time may misguide learners into believing that the regulations are the components of learning a language and not a means. The other issue with the inductive technique is that students may hypothesize the incorrect rule, or their interpretations of perceptions of the rules could be either too narrow or broad in its use (Abdukarimova & Zubaydova 2021, p. 373). Also a worry that could affect the use of the inductive teaching method is that it may irritate students who would prefer simply to be briefed the guidelines behind a topic, theory, or subject. Thus, teachers should understand how the merits of the inductive approach could influence their teaching, as well as consider the possible implications of the associated limitations.
On the contrary, the deductive teaching approach entails moving from general to specific claims. It entails deduction from something well-known or assumed to specific indications. The deductive technique implies that the educator presents the regulations, gives a framework, then the student engage in free practices and response activities. The teacher starts with an expansive explanation and proceeds with prediction for particular observations supporting it (Ahmadzai et al. (2019, p. 1230). Another way of understanding the deductive teaching technique is that the learner is being offered a general rule, which is then used to a particular language example and executed via practice activities. The teaching technique is narrow in its true sense and pays attention to confirming or testing a hypothesis. According to Ahmadzai et al. (2019, p. 1231) the deductive approach is known as a top-down approach because it shifts from more general to specific factors. Teachers, for example, may apply a particular theory to a specific concept or citing a particular law to foretell the outcomes of an undertaking. An example of the deductive method of teaching is that tutor writes easy-to-understand sentences to describe the regulations of the past and present tenses. Following this exercise, the give out worksheets where learners are prompted to change past tenses to present and again, the other way round.
Similarly, the deductive teaching method has strengths and limitations that influence its application in the classroom context. A merit linked to the deductive method is that it saves time because it is straight forward. The other reason why educators could be driven to use the deductive procedure as opposed to the inductive method is that the many guidelines of a subject matter, or even its practice, can be rapidly and modestly explained and allow more time for use and practice (Abdukarimova & Zubaydova 2021, p. 373). Furthermore, Abdukarimova and Zubaydova (2021, p. 373) notify that the deductive method is very much apposite for the development and intellect of many mature learners, and also appreciates the functions of cognitive actions and processes in acquiring language. The technique offers teachers with the opportunity to grammar or language points as they emerge, instead of having to prepare particular materials beforehand. However, a deductive grammar approach presents considerable challenges that are worth mentioning. Commencing a lesson with a grammar presentation, Abdukarimova and Zubaydova (2021, p. 373) explain, may not be comprehensible for some learners, particularly at tender ages. Learners in this instance are not obliged to be competent in the language (the language that is utilized to talk about rules of grammar). Learners are also not required to know the underlying rules, something that could harm their performance. The other limitation with the deductive technique is that it is teacher-centered thereby denying students the chance to take an active role in the learning process. As a result, instructor’s explanation is usually higher than learners’ engagement and interactions. Also, Abdukarimova and Zubaydova (2021, p. 373) identify the idea that the deductive approach promotes the notion that learning a language is merely a case of being conversant with the rules as a possible demerit the deductive technique. Hence, knowing the strengths and weaknesses of the deductive approach presents an opportunity for teachers to determine whether they would prefer it to the inductive method.
Looking at the Kuwaiti context, it appears that many teachers of grammar use the deductive method as opposed to the inductive technique. Whereas not much research has happened in this area to explore the possible factors that drive grammar teachers in Kuwait towards the deductive approach, it is possible to explore various factors that help to explain this phenomenon. In his study, Kamil (2011) explores the attitudes of Kuwaiti EFL learner-instructor to approaches of learning and teaching EFL writing in the Kuwaiti context, and the length to which their views of EFL writing may be impacted by these methods. Kamil (2011) who draws from the findings of ten interviews with students and teachers from a Kuwait-based institution of higher learning discovers that change is required in the pedagogical techniques in the teaching of grammar and EFL writing. EFL grammar and writing educators in the study showed inadequate knowledge, both of what appropriate teaching technique to use and how to identify the possible implications of their learners’ out-of-school encounters of using and writing grammar correctly and of using English appropriately as a social practice. In addition, Kamil (2011) discovered that the teachers’ view that their students are not competent English speakers based on the fact that English is not the first or official language lead them to use the deductive approach with the belief that this makes it easier for them to deliver their content and for learners to know the applicable rules. Unfortunately, when teachers take center stage and give learners little chance to critically and practically interact with the various forms, it becomes difficult to master the content as it would be with active engagement. Thus, Kamil (2011) recommends further research to examine methods of teaching and learning the various aspects of EFL including use of grammar and EFL in its entirety to establish a robust way of teaching, to listen to the needs of EFL learners, to improve the techniques of teaching practices, and to elevate learners’ self-efficacy in their capacity to be efficient in their EFL grammar use in specific, and EFL as a whole.
Based on the findings and recommendations, it is appropriate for Kuwaiti teachers of grammar to consider using the inductive approach because evidence suggests that it has a higher chance of equipping learners with needed skills to master particular concepts more effectively. When it comes to use of grammar, students have a better chance to acquire the needed skills and concepts when they take active roles in the learning processes as opposed to when the teacher does most of the things. It is the reason why Samanta (2021, p. 351) argues that the rules that students learn and discover for themselves through a student-centered approach how to utilize, when to apply certain structures that they are presented with, and to determine whether certain rules apply or not. In the long run, this makes the guidelines more memorable, meaningful, and acquired. In addition, Kuwaiti teachers may have to turn their attention to the inductive method because as learners perform things for themselves they are prepared for improved autonomy and self-reliance (Samanta 2021, p. 352). The energy and time that students use while trying to work out and understand the rules with learners prepare them for tougher concepts. Whereas critics of this method could argue that the plan could demand educators to create a lesson plan and to select and organize data keenly as to guide students to a precise formulation and conceptualization of the rule, these only make the teaching-learning experience more informed and elaborate (Samanta 2021, p. 352). Based the justification on why the inductive technique is more appropriate, teachers of grammar in Kuwait should increasingly turn their attention towards this approach to improve their teaching style and learners’ ability to improve in the various areas.
Teacher Attitudes towards the Use of the Inductive Method
Teacher attitude in the EFL context is important because this determines how they improve their learners’ ability to speak and write English. The teachers’ attitude according to Gursoy (2012, p. 108) determine how they are caring and kind as they engage learners and try to equip them relevant skills. A teacher’s attitude in this context also determine their commitment to share the responsibilities in a classroom because this is very important in influencing the learner’s cognitive level in the subject area (David 2011, p. 74). Teachers who have a positive attitude towards what they do have an honest sensitivity to the learners’ diversity, as well as have the inspiration to give meaningful learning encounters for all learners (David 2011, p. 74). A teacher’s attitude also influences their enthusiasm for encouraging the learners’ creativity. Attitude is essential when one serves as a teacher (Rahmany et al. 2014, p. 356). It influences learners in many aspects, and impact their learning experience. Instructors’ attitude can boost or harm student inspiration, well-being, and achievement. Recent findings according to Saminathan and Manivannan (2018, p. 355) showed that negative teacher attitude can affect academic performance and achievement and escalate learners’ psychological distress and physical forms of stress. Research by Saminathan and Manivannan (2018, p. 355) evidenced that instructors’ positive attitudes positively influence learners’ personality as well as their performance in other areas. Based on this description, educators’ attitude in the EFL context is an issue that warrants much attention.
Various scholars have performed researches with the goal of understanding teacher attitude towards the inductive approach. In their research aimed at studying the effects of using the deductive and inductive teaching methods upon EFL undergraduate learners’ performance at the Hashemite University, the outcomes by Obeidat and Alomari (2020, p. 287) showed substantial variations between the ways of learners’ scores in the two groups of learners that take part in the study. Those who underwent teaching using the inductive technique showed substantial improvement in their performance and gained needed skills and concepts in real time. The findings also showed no substantial variations based on study-year, the type of learning institution they attended, and gender (Obeidat & Alomari, 2020, p. 287). In light of these outcomes, the researchers recommend the use of the inductive technique. Also, Prince and Fedler (2006, p. 20) believe that the inductive method is more effective and apocopate as compared to the deductive technique. The author argue that whereas conventional engineering instruction is more inclined to deductive forms, starting with theories and moving towards the use of these theories, other teaching methods are largely inductive. Based on the findings of a meta-analyses of various published sources, Prince and Fedler (2006, p. 21) conclude that while the strength of the evidence differs from one technique to another, inductive techniques are consistently discovered to be at least the same as, and overall, more effective compared to the deductive approach for attaining a wide range of learning outcomes. The review of existing literature restores confidence that embracing the inductive technique presents a suitable chance to achieve more impressive results.
Various key issues require attention to fill the gaps that could affect the use of the inductive approach. A key concern is the scarcity of literature that address educator’s attitude on the use of inductive methods. The gap makes it difficult for teachers to know the most suitable way to conduct themselves when interacting with the teaching approach to increase their chances of achieving impressive results. A suitable way to fill the gap is for researchers to conduct more research in this area with the goal of showing the right teacher attitude that could impact learners’ performance and perception towards a subject. The other gap that requires considerable attention is the absence of studies looking into the subject directly in the context of Kuwait. As a result, teachers stick to traditional teaching techniques that prove to be ineffective, especially for learning English that is neither an official or first language in Kuwait. The lack of research addressing the issue has hampered progress and highly needed transformation that would give teachers and learners the chance to explore teaching-learning approaches that have the capacity to change perception on English language and its use. The best way to mitigate the issue is for both local and international researchers to explore the matter. Their studies should engage teachers and possibly learners to understand and report correctly on the issues that impact on instructors’ attitude. It is very important to fill the identified gaps to improve how teachers influence their learners’ ability to be competent users of the various components and rules of grammar. However, failing to adopt appropriate actions could affect teachers’ ability to be impactful through their teaching exercises, which will directly harm, students’ performance.
To respond to the research questions, the study uses a qualitative methodology aimed at collecting helpful data and fulfilling other underlying components. Whereas a qualitative research design tend to vary based upon the used method, such as observation, focus groups, and in-depth interviews, there are also common features. A primary elements of the qualitative design is it seeks to achieve a richly detailed description of a particular matter or meaning depending on first-hand experience (Rahman 2017, p. 104). This is attained by having a considerably small but committed sample base because of gathering the required data can take a relatively longer time. The technique is focused with providing answers to the “hows” and “whys” of the issues under investigation.
The study employs the open-ended questionnaires to gather rich data and also to understand the effects of teacher perception. Open-ended questions is appropriate in this scenario because it provides room to acquire new and unexpected insights (Rahman 2017, p. 105). Because the participant does not regulations on how to frame their response, the researcher is likely to gain real views and information they did not previously consider. In addition, open-ended questions are appropriate in this case because these types of questions permit the researcher to understand the opinions, emotions, feelings, and ideas of those taking part in the exercise. Nonetheless, that does not mean that the technique does not have its limitations. A key concern with this type of questions is that it could be time-consuming (Rahman 2017, p. 105). The other issue with open-ended questions is that it is possible to generate some irrelevant responses that may not be as useful in responding to the research question. However, since the merits of using open-ended questions outweigh its negative effects, the way of gathering data is the most suitable in this scenario.
The analysis utilizes the Likert scale to measure participants’ attitudes. A likely scale is in the form of a question that utilizes five or seven-point scales, sometimes known as a satisfaction scale, which ranges from one measure to the other. The points that will feature in this instance are strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree nor disagree, agree, and strongly agree. The scale is suitable for this case because it provides real insight about the participants’ views and ideologies. However, the restricted nature of the scale as confined within the five points make the scale quite limiting.
Ethical consideration is essential in this instance to ensure that the happenings do not harm or cause unpleasant effects to any of the participating sides. To begin with, partakers will give informed consent to confirm that they are prepared to participate in the research. Getting informed consent will avoid scenarios where some participants pull out or feel pressed to take part in the exercise (Rahman 2017, p. 107). Moreover, the study will employ confidentiality in data handling and storage after completing the research. Participants will receive information that the data collected from them will be handled with uttermost privacy to increase the desire in them to give their views (Rahman 2017, p. 107). Each participants will receive assurance that the data collected from them will be used for research purposes only.
Selecting the right sample for the study is essential to increase the likelihood of generating relevant data that would help to respond to the research questions. Hence, it is essential to settle on the most appropriate sampling technique. In this case, the stratified systematic sampling is the most suitable because it offers the opportunity to settle on respondents who are better placed to respond to the research questions. The sampling method begins by placing the participants into various groups called strata before settling on the most appropriate ones to participate in the exercise. The technique is most suitable when the population under investigation is heterogeneous, or different, or where particular homogenous, sub-populations, or similar can be omitted. In this case, following the stratification process, 10 EFL teachers from Kuwait are selected to participate in the research. All the participating teachers are from Kuwait and are of Islamic origin to be in a good position to understand the impact of the local culture on using English. Again, all the participants have served as grammar teachers for the past two years, which is enough to have understood the issues facing learners and impending their teaching practices. The study incorporates six male teachers and four female teachers as a way of achieving diversity and gender balance. Moreover, engaging both male and female participants in the exercise offers the chance to understand whether one’s gender as a teacher impact on the selected teaching method and attitude attached to the various forms. The study chooses to work with a sample of ten participants because these are easier to manage and interview as opposed to a larger group. Moreover, a qualitative method does not usually require a larger sample.
The data analysis process will adhere to the six key data presentation procedures for analytics. According to Bhanot (2021), the first procedure is to access the data, which in this case is through open-ended questions. Upon identifying the data, it should be subjected to the analysis model. The data at this level could be in the form of a combined structured or semi-structured data in various forms of repositories. The next phase is to cleanse the data because this ensures that the dataset can offer reliable and valid responses following the data analysis process. This process may happen manually for smaller datasets like in this scenario or automatically in larger samples (Bhanot 2021). The next procedure is to format the data, which entails practices such as removing repetitions or inappropriate abbreviations. The next phase is to combine based on certain similarities before transiting to the final step – analysis (Bhanot 2021). The most suitable data analysis technique in this scenario is thematic analysis. The approach makes it possible to analyze qualitative data that involves searching through the dataset to recognize, analyze, and make reports on recurring patterns and themes. It is a technique for describing data, but also entails interpreting it in the practices of choosing codes and forming themes (Kiger & Varpio 2020, p. 2). Thematic analysis is suitable in this instance because it does not need an in-depth technological and theoretical knowledge of other qualitative techniques (Kiger & Varpio 2020, p. 2). Moreover, the technique provides a more reachable kind of analysis, especially for those just entering their research career.
The participants respond to the thirteen questions included in the questionnaire as well as respond to open-ended questions that both appear at the appendix section of this essay. A significant portion of participants do not concur that the inductive method is superior to the deductive approach, thus explaining why the latter technique is prevalent. Whereas a large portion of responded feel that the inductive technique promotes participation and autonomy, many also feel that the method require much time and may not be willing to entirely teach students using the method. In addition, a significant portion of the participants acknowledge that their institutions do not support the inductive method as it does with the deductive form. Also emerging from the analysis is that not many teachers have adequate training on how to use the inductive approach, and not many learners are willing to embrace the technique because it requires them to do much. In the open-ended questions, a majority of participants believe that factors such as influence of Arabic language, teachers’ commitment to embrace inductive teaching, and support from school determine their attitude toward inductive teaching. Overall, the findings suggest that the inductive approach is yet to become applicable in teaching grammar at a larger context in Kuwait because of the undesirable attitude that teachers have on this teaching method.
The findings reiterate the importance of increasing awareness among teachers of grammar in Kuwait regarding the use of the inductive teaching approach. The sensitization should go hand in hand with proper training to improve the teachers’ ability to use the concept as effectively as possible in addition to have a positive attitude towards it. The awareness programs should take various forms including seminars and webinars, as well as by making possible adjustments to the curriculum to show emphasis on why this approach to teaching is important and likely to transform how teachers and learners perceive teaching and learning English, respectively. A critical aspect to focus on are the merits of embracing the approach as opposed to sticking to the deductive technique. A particular factor to stress is that the deductive technique incorporates everyone in the learning process and shows the value of interacting with the rules to acquire concrete knowledge of how they work (Hidayat 2018, p. 113). Nonetheless, failing to show the importance of turning to the deductive technique could still harm the attitude teachers have towards the approach.
Grammar teachers in Kuwait preferably use the deductive method to teach their learners yet, apparently the technique is not as effective in impacting on how learners master the concepts being taught. Consequently, the report recommends the adoption of the inductive teaching method that proves effective. The essay reveals that using the inductive technique bolsters learner engagement and fosters natural curiosity in learners. Moreover, the essay reveals that learners tend to be critical thinkers when tutors use the inductive technique, and also tend to more practical in their approach. However, teachers should understand the limitations associated with the technique to increase their chances of using the teaching technique as effectively as possible. It is also essential to understand the possible strengths and weaknesses of the deductive approach that seemingly is widely used by grammar teachers, but does not seem to be as effective as the inductive technique. The assessment reveals through an analysis of various existing literature that whereas more teachers of grammar use the deductive technique, there is need to switch attention to the inductive technique that keeps learners active and more likely to acquire skills and concepts needed to improve in grammar. The research findings affirm that the poor attitude that Kuwaiti teachers have toward the use of the inductive technique bars them from teaching grammar as effectively as possible. Consequently teachers of grammar in Kuwait gain the inspiration to focus the inductive method that challenges learners to think critically and take active roles in the learning process. The chief significance of the study is that it prompts teachers of grammar in Kuwait to focus on the inductive teaching method that proves effective in teaching language.
Abdukarimova, A, & Zubaydova, N 2021, ‘Deductive and inductive approaches to teaching grammar’, Proceeds of the International Scientific Practical Conference on “Cognitive Research in Education” Organized by Samarkand Regional Center for Retraining and Advancing Training of Public Education Staff, Uzbekistan, pp. 372-376.
Ahmadzai, S, Katawazai, R, & Sandaran, S 2019, ‘The use of deductive and inductive approaches (Shahzadgul Ahmadzai and Rahmatullah Katawazai’, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, vol. 8, no. 5, 1230-1235.
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Hidayat, D 2017, ‘Exploring inductive grammar teaching: English teacher perspectives’, Indonesian Journal of English Education, vol. 4, no. 2, 112-119.
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Prince, M, & Fedler, R 2006, ‘Inductive teaching and learning methods: Definitions, comparisons, and research bases’, Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 95, pp. 123-137.
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Taha, H 2014, ‘The effects of inductive teaching methods in an electrochemistry class’, The 2014 WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings, pp. 137-148.
Appendix 1 – Questionnaire for data collection to use in the research paper -Part A: Likert Scale
|Statement||Agreement or disagreement|
|Strongly disagree||Disagree||Neither agree nor disagree||Agree||Strongly agree|
|The inductive method is an effective method for grammar teaching in EFL classes|
|The inductive method can be as helpful to my students as the deductive method in grammar teaching|
|The inductive method increases student participation in grammar classes compared to the deductive method|
|The inductive method can help build autonomy and self-reliance/direction of students in the learning process|
|My students can collaborate effectively in rule discovery and hence have extra language practice in the inductive method|
|I can correct and mitigate errors that learners may make in rule discovery and application|
|The inductive method requires me to take more time in preparing and designing classes|
|The time and resources that are required to prepare for grammar teaching using the inductive method are worth it|
|The inductive method is less accepted/conventional in grammar teaching in my institutional context and would thus be “experimental” and undesirable to use|
|I am willing to teach my students purely using the inductive method|
|I am willing to combine the inductive method of grammar teaching with the deductive method in my classes|
|I feel adequately resourced and trained to apply the inductive method of grammar teaching in my classroom|
|My students are adequately resourced and motivated to learn grammar using the inductive method|
Index 2 – Part B: Some Open-Ended Questions
- In what ways do you believe your responses in Part A above affect your teaching practices, beliefs, and general behavior?
- What would you say are the implications of your responses in part A above to the way you teach grammar in the classroom?
- What other implications do you envisage from your responses in part A to grammar teaching in Kuwait?