International Migration Flows
Immigration policies are the main determinants of the international migration flows. Regardless of any other prevailing factors, it is not possible for people to migrate if the policies by the receiving countries do not allow. Many countries have adopted policies, legal barriers, and other measures aimed at controlling the number of people who visit for different purposes. For instance, they may give short terms visas or other travel permits that will allow visitors to reside in the country for a short time. However, they will take stringent measures such as deporting people who are living in the country illegally. However much people may desire to migrate to another country, they will not be able to do so if the policies of that country restricts them from doing so.
Over the years, migration policies in most countries have become stricter as the governments try to find ways of combating social ills and threats to the country. Many governments struggle to ensure that all its citizens are employed. Therefore, they will limit the number of people migrating to the country in search for work. Many countries have realized the impact of terror threats and other threats to security and this has compelled them to take measures aimed at controlling the number of foreigners entering the country. People will be hard pressed to migrate to countries where they know they will not receive equal treatment or where they will not be treated fairly. The fact that migrants living in a country illegally are not able to acquire jobs or services such as healthcare will discourage others from migrating to the country. However, if the policies are not reinforced and borders are not well maintained this will encourage many people to consider migrating.
Another factor that affects international migration flows is economic pressure. People move to countries where they will find better employment and work opportunities. They want to live in a country where they will be able to earn better wages and live a good life. Many people want to help their families who might be living in poverty back home. This often happens in situations where people from the least developed countries seek to migrate to countries in the developed world. People in the developed world have better standards of living and there are more employment opportunities. Lack of development in some regions has limited the opportunities that people have and this has hindered their chances of progress.
In some cases, the receiving countries encourage this kind of migration because of the benefits it offers to companies and industries. The migrants provide low cost labor, which is good for industries intending to reduce their costs of operations. People are encouraged to move to countries with low populations but good development as this increases their chances of getting good employment. In areas such as Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, there is a high number of foreigners living and working there. Economic pressure forces highly skilled and educated people to look for jobs. This happens in cases where they lack opportunities in their own countries or where they want to receive better compensation for their skills. Most people feel that they have invested a lot of their time, money, and other resources to acquire the skills they have. Therefore, they will consider alternative options if their country is not able to offer them what they need.