Aborigine History in North America
The two main approaches include trade compacts and military alliances. Europeans were incorporated into the Aborigine cultural network by adopting the traditional lifestyle and accomplishing the necessary rituals, creating friends and exchanging gifts.
Within the Aboriginal community, the practice of gift giving and exchangewas symbolic in many ways.When dealing with the Inuit Elders of First Nations, it is customary to use a gift to determine whether one’s request or actions are approved. The most common gift is usually tobaccothat acts as the binding factor in a contract. Aborigines also consider tobacco a sacred medicine and therefore, awarding such a gift is taken very seriously. Conversely, gifts can also be considered as rude and even inappropriate particularly for business deals with Aborigine elders.
The Covenant Chain refers to several alliances and agreements created in the 17th century mostly between the British settlers in North America and the Iroquois Confederacy. Most of these treaties were designed to promote peace, stability, and commercial activities. They tackled challenges affecting colonial inhabitation, and attempted to repress conflict between the colonists and Indian natives.
The Robinson Treaties were signed in 1850 between the Ojibwa chiefs and the English settlers. It covered the northern areas of Lake Huron and Lake Superior. The 11 Numbered Treaties were signed between the First Nations and the Canadian monarch, Edward VII in the period 1871 to 1921. The treaty allowed the Canadian state to exploit minerals in areas that are currently Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan. The Murray Treaty of Longueil was signed in 1760 between General James Murray of the British forces and the Wendat chiefs. The agreement was fashioned to protect the whole Huron-Wendat community from mistreatment and foreign interference. The Treaty of Utrecht consisted of several separate agreements that were signed in 1713 between the French and British. The treaty ceded Acadia to the care of the British government and left Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward Island to the French administration. The Douglas Treaties were signed over a period between 1850 and 1854 between the British government through James Douglas and several Coast Salish communities. The treaties covered the greater part of Vancouver Island. The Upper Canada Treaties were signed between 1764 and 1862 between the First Nations and the British government. The treaties affected lands that are modern day Ontario and British Columbia.
The list of First Nation tribes that participated in signing the Robinson Huron Treaty are as follows: Animbiigoo Zaagi’igan Anishinaabek, Atikameksheng Anishnawbek, Batchewana First Nation of Ojibways, Biinjitiwabik Zaaging Anishnabek, Bingwi Neyaashi Anishinaabek, Dokis, Fort William, Garden River, Gull Bay, Henvey Inlet, Long Lake 58, Magnetawan, Michipicoten, Mississauga, Chippewas of Nawash Unceded, Nipissing, Pays Plat,
Pic Mobert, Ojibways of the Pic River, Red Rock Indian Band, Sagamok Anishnawbek, Saugeen, Serpent River, Shawanaga, Sheshegwaning, Temagami, Thessalon, Wahnapitae, Wasauksing and Whitefish River.
The Royal Proclamation was published by King George III with a set of guidelines that applied to the European settlement within Aboriginal regions in present day North America. Currently, the Proclamation is a legally binding document that restricts the invasion of their land as well as their culture.
The series of treaties surrounding the acquisition and control of land over the years was important in shifting power to the Europeans. To a lesser extent, the use of sophisticated military resources also helped in the process.